Song Analysis To Singing

In this new video series, we explore the potential of improving performance by analyzing the lyrics to a song before singing it again. So often, we sing on autopilot, mimicking what we hear on the radio, TV, internet…but how often do we really listen to the message the songwriter is sending us. Can you hear the difference before and afterwards?


Choir singing boosts immune system activity in cancer patients and carers, study shows

Singing in a choir for just 1 hour causes physiological changes in people affected by cancer


Singing in a choir for just one hour boosts levels of immune proteins in people affected by cancer, reduces stress and improves mood, which in turn could have a positive impact on overall health, a new study by Tenovus Cancer Care and the Royal College of Music published today in ecancermedicalscience has found.


The research raises the possibility that singing in choir rehearsals could help to put people in the best possible position to receive treatment, maintain remission and support cancer patients.


The study tested 193 members of five different choirs. Results showed that singing for an hour was associated with significant reductions in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and increases in quantities of cytokines — proteins of the immune system — which can boost the body’s ability to fight serious illness.


Dr Ian Lewis, Director of Research and Policy at Tenovus Cancer Care and co-author of the research, said: “These are really exciting findings. We have been building a body of evidence over the past six years to show that singing in a choir can have a range of social, emotional and psychological benefits, and now we can see it has biological effects too.


“We’ve long heard anecdotal evidence that singing in a choir makes people feel good, but this is the first time it’s been demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by singing. It’s really exciting and could enhance the way we support people with cancer in the future.”


The study also found that those with the lowest levels of mental wellbeing and highest levels of depression experienced greatest mood improvement, associated with lower levels of inflammation in the body. There is a link between high levels of inflammation and serious illness.


Choir members gave samples of their saliva before an hour of singing, and then again just after. The samples were analysed to see what changes occurred in a number of hormones, immune proteins, neuropeptides and receptors.


Dr Daisy Fancourt, Research Associate at the Centre for Performance Science, a partnership between the Royal College of Music and Imperial College London and co-author of the research, said: “Many people affected by cancer can experience psychological difficulties such as stress, anxiety and depression. Research has demonstrated that these can suppress immune activity, at a time when patients need as much support as they can get from their immune system. This research is exciting as it suggests that an activity as simple as singing could reduce some of this stress-induced suppression, helping to improve wellbeing and quality of life amongst patients and put them in the best position to receive treatment.”


Diane Raybould, 64, took part in the study and has been singing with the Bridgend Sing with Us choir since 2010. Diane was diagnosed with breast cancer when she was aged 50. Her daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer at the same time and sadly, passed away from the disease at just 28. Diane said: “Singing in the choir is about more than just enjoyment, it genuinely makes you feel better. The choir leaders play a huge part of course, but so does the support of the other choir members, the inspirational programme and uplifting songs. The choir is a family, simple as that. Having cancer and losing someone to cancer can be very isolating. With the choir, you can share experiences openly and that is hugely important.”


Rosie Dow, Head of Sing with Us at Tenovus Cancer Care and co-author of the research, added: “This research is so exciting, as it echoes everything all our choir members tell us about how singing has helped them. I’ve seen peoples’ lives transformed through singing in our choirs so knowing that singing also makes a biological difference will hopefully help us to reach more people with the message that singing is great for you — mind, body and soul.”


Following on from this research, Tenovus Cancer Care is launching a two year study looking in more depth at the longitudinal effect of choir singing over several months. It will look at mental health, wellbeing, social support and ability to cope with cancer, alongside measuring stress hormones and immune function amongst patients, carers, staff and people who have lost somebody to cancer.

Story Source:

Materials provided by ecancermedicalscienceNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Daisy Fancourt, Aaron Williamon, Livia A Carvalho, Andrew Steptoe, Rosie Dow, Ian Lewis. Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carersecancermedicalscience, 2016; 10 DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2016.631


Effective Practice

(Some of the points I raise here may be more applicable to playing an instrument, some targeted at singers, so use your judgement when reading and apply what you find helpful to your own musical journey.)

A topic that frequently arises when tutoring students is the importance of sticking to a regular practice schedule. Perhaps because it is a reminder of schooldays homework, or because is in addition to younger students’ workload who are still at school or college, but some players who enjoy playing during class and melodic repertoire are loath to practice regularly (and effectively) at home.

Students who shirk practicing think tutors don’t know. We know! Trust me. I’ve used all the excuses in the book to get out of practicing. Tutors who have taught for years are also able to gage the rate at which you should be progressing with a good teacher and regular time set aside for practicing.

If you don’t commit, you are only cheating yourself.

This next sentence is the most important part of this blog entry, so please read and re-read it until it sinks in.

Regular practice is the most important thing you can do to improve as a player.

Let’s read it again.

Regular practice is the most important thing you can do to improve as a player.

Did you get that? Are you making best use of your practice sessions? If not, why not? Think about what changes you need to make in order to better the outcome of your rehearsal sessions.

Everyone who plays should practice and practice can often be fun. For me, as a perfectionist, my fun is in seeing the progress I make, regardless of study content, but students who need a little more motivation (particularly younger learners) may need to find fun material to work with (catchy melodies etc).

Rudimentary mechanics is the basis for all great performance, so take your medicine in the knowledge it will make you a better player. Most importantly, structuring your practice will help you maintain regular sessions.

Below are some ideas I have for you.



What do you want to achieve from playing your instrument? Close your eyes and visualise it; see yourself doing whatever it is that you want to do, be it performing onstage at the BBC Proms or Carnegie Hall, touring with a live rock band, or teaching others. See yourself already doing it.

Inhale slowly through the nose and then exhale slowly through the mouth, all the while seeing your future self in your mind. Visualisation is half the journey and helps you accomplish your goals more quickly. It is done!



Decide when you can best practice and stick to that slot daily. Maybe you prefer to play as soon as you get home from school or work, or maybe you’d rather have a rest first and then get to it. Whichever works best for you is fine.

Make sure to rehearse for at least half an hour every day. Longer is preferabl for intermediate and advanced students as the first portion of practice sessions merely warms up the fingers/larynx/lips etc and wakes up the mind; I find with busy students, this in itself can take up to an hour to accomplish – especially if practicing at the end of a stressful/busy day – so if time permits, spend another half hour or more actually playing the study pieces. Younger students and beginners can start with twenty minute sessions.

If you have been playing for longer but can only find twenty minutes in your day to practice, do it and do it daily! Don’t beat yourself up about having small amounts of time free to dedicate to your musicianship, just knuckle down and do it. Quieter times will come when you will be able to extend your sessions, but for now, it is better to be consistent and have daily practice than play for an hour or two one day and then do nothing for two or three days.

The mind and body needs repetition in order to make playing your instrument a habit. Think about when you learned to walk or tie your shoes. These activities are second nature now and need little to no thought, but initially, you would have had to concentrate in order to accomplish them. We want wonderful playing and singing to come as naturally to us.

One thing to note:

If you are overly tired, not concentrating, or unable to play/sing (cracked lips, sore throat, sore joints, stop. There’s no point in worsening your state or wasting time. If it is a matter or tiredness or concentration, go and do something that fires up your brain or relaxes you – whichever you need – and then come back to play.



There is no perfect space in which to practice. Some people prefer to work in noisy environments, others in quiet solitude.

Find the best place for you.

Set up your music stand, ensure your books are at hand, and try to leave your instrument there so it becomes a dedicated practice space. When not touring, I have one of my violins on a stand in plain view from anywhere in the room; seeing it reminds me to play and I practice more often than I would if it were locked away in a case.



I’m not just talking about the audible ones; write down what you do during your sessions. At the end of the week/month/year, you can see visually how much you have accomplished. If you do not have a teacher who provides goal sheets or keeps regular notes in your homework diary – perhaps you are teaching yourself or working with a friend – find your own way of metering your progress. Set goals for the next day and then mark off each goal as you achieve it. This could be a list of scales, a difficult passage in a piece, anything you decide.



Don’t just idly play through your material, give each note or syllable full attention. Practice standing u, if you are able, and breathe regularly and in a relaxed fashion.



If you are practicing alone, play with a friend and vice versa. If you usually start with technical studies, begin with a piece from your repertoire and then play through your studies. Change when you play your scales, or if you start with major scales and arpeggios, start with the minor ones. Whilst the repetition of practice is essential for growth, making changes in how you practice help keep you on your toes. Join an ensemble and better your sight-reading and awareness.



When playing longer pieces, especially if they are dificult, starting at the beginning can be a waste of time. You may find there is a point at which your mind switches off and you keep making the same mistakes, or there’s a tricky passage that always gets the better of you and so you play something else instead. Sometimes, simple boredom can throw you off.

Attack it.

Start with that section, regardless of page number. If it is tricky, slow down and play it at a pace you can manage. Maybe the bowing trips you up, or position changes. Focus on what makes the passage hard to play and go over it again and again. Repetition is key to muscle/mental memory.



It is tempting to skip past difficult passages that you consistently play in a sloppy manner. DON’T. Go back and try again, taking it SLOOOOOOOOOWLY. Take those few bars and play them until you’ve mastered them.

I will touch upon these points in more depth in a future article. For now, happy practicing!


Copyright © Emma L. M. Sweeney 2012. All Rights Reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder, except as follows: You may repost this article on your website or blog, providing the articles and author are not depicted in a negative manner, and you have linked back to this original page.

Microphone Basics

Eminem, showing how not to hold a microphone

Eminem, showing how not to hold a microphone

For the purposes of this article, the discussion will focus on live microphone technique, rather than studio performance, which I will write about in a later article.


Most singers start out learning their craft singing without amplification, e.g. in choirs, at a piano etcetera; some may discover their talent via karaoke nights at local bars. There will come a point when you begin using microphones more and more and it’s good to know your equipment.



One thing that is common among beginners, and sometimes with singers who have performed for years, is not holding the microphone properly or failing to utilise it in a way to get the best sonic results from the equipment.


Holding the mic round the shell may look cool but impedes sound quality and can create unpleasant feedback. And don’t blow, tap on or drop the microphone, and please please please do not swing it from the cable as this loosens the connecting parts in the end of the microphone (and can also damage the cable). Take note, rappers and cool kids!


Singing too close to the microphone creates ‘proximity effect’; a muffled sound which means your voice can get lost in the overall mix by producing lots of bass end. Experienced singers can use this to their advantage, in effect adjusting the tone of their voices while singing by varying the distance and angle of the microphone. If your voice is tired and you’re using an SM58 or similar, singing slightly to the side or above, rather than directly in front will cut out extra lower frequencies, making your voice sound a bit brighter.



Microphones pick up signals from different areas around the shell (and some in other regions), but it’s safe to say the best position to sing from is directly in front of the microphone shell.



If you’ve used a microphone as a beginner, or at karaoke, it’s probably a dynamic one. Designed with a mesh ball cover at one end, the dynamic microphone is used for nearly all live sound (and in the studio it can be used for recording drums, electric guitars and electric basses). Inexpensive and durable, they don’t need a battery or power supply to work (unless wireless models).


Dynamic microphones do not pick up high frequencies well and so are rarely used for recording studio vocals. However, they have a warm tone sympathetic to most voices in a live setting and are most effective when working with loud sound sources (so ideal if singing on a small stage in front of a loud drummer).



Capacitor/condenser microphones are much more sensitive than dynamic microphones, with a wider range of frequencies picked up. Capacitors produce only a small electrical signal (48v) and so require a built-in pre-amp to bring the signal up to a useable level (a factor that makes them more expensive than dynamic microphones).


Most mixing desks have a phantom power supply (which boosts the signal by 48v). Because of their relative fragility compared to dynamics and pick-up range, capacitor microphones are not commonly used for live performances (other than lead singers).


Capacitor microphones are offered in a variety of pickup patterns (see the diagram below). For a more in-depth discussion about microphones, please visit Sound On Sound.



Microphone Polar Patterns

The image above shows the various pick-up patterns of microphones. Most dynamic microphones have Cardioid/Hypercardioid (a unidirectional pick-up), which is ideal for live performance.



This is all down to personal preference. The two most popular live brands among singers I have worked with are Shure and Sennheiser. I personally prefer Shure microphones for my voice, as Sennheiser tend to make me sound a little hissy and don’t always work well with my natural frequencies (higher spec models aside), but some other singers I know with a clearer tone prefer Sennheiser microphones.


When you go to purchase a mic, the store will usually have PA equipment set up for you to try out a few. The Shure SM58, a basic all-rounder is a good place to start, in my opinion. I was also pleased with my Beyer microphone, but found it irrepairable after dropping at a gig, so my experience is that they are more delicate than the SM58.



In a later article, I will write about EQ on the mixer and how to utilise it to achieve your best vocal sound. We will also discuss the varying mic techniques employed by lead and backing vocalists.


Copyright © Emma L. M. Sweeney 2010. All Rights Reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder, except as follows: You may repost this article on your website or blog, providing the articles and author are not depicted in a negative manner, and you have linked back to this original page.

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Introduction to Songwriting

What is a Song?

· A song is a story set to music.
· A strong song has a simple, catchy melody, great lyrics, and well-plotted chord progressions
· Two or three main themes are all that is needed in a song
· The trick to writing great lyrics is to write what you know AND what the listener can relate to. It is also wise to carefully choose the words used

Song Structure

While there are no hard and fast rules when it comes to creativity, in order to write professionally for a commercial market, certain rules are commonly followed. Songwriting structures can be amended to accommodate writer preference and song duration, e.g. a 12” mix of a song will have a longer audio space to fill, and therefore sections may be repeated more often than in the Radio Edit.

*The Radio Edit is between 3 minutes and 3min30s.

Typical song structures include:

*Some people choose to call the Pre-Chorus a Bridge, and the Bridge a Middle 8. When collaborating with a co-writer, make sure you clarify terminology used!

What is the Chorus? What does it do?

· It is the catchiest part of the song
· It often includes the song title
· It may repeat one or two simple lyrics
· It is the part the listener remembers.
· It rarely changes, if at all.*
· It is usually around 8 bars long

We should aim to keep the chorus simple. This is the part of the song listeners easily recognise and like to sing along to. ‘Bad’ songwriting includes making a chorus too complicated in melody, pitch, or lyrical content for the listener to participate.

Think about some songs you know with catchy, simple choruses. What is similar about them? How many melodies do they use in the chorus? How many lines of lyrics do they have? Do they repeat the melody and/or lyrical content at all?

*On the last repeat of a song, the chord progression in the chorus may be altered slightly to take the song to the outro, or a single lyric may be modified. Backing vocal lyrics may also be altered, and in terms of production, different instruments omitted or added as the song progresses etc.

What is the Verse? What does it do?

· It pushes the story along
· The lyrics change in each verse, and the verses give details about the overall topic
· The verse has the second most memorable melody in the song
· While the lyrics change, they have to fit the same melody as in the previous verse

Certain types of music don’t always follow these rules, .e.g dance/house music tracks, ambient music etc. A good house track may have a catchy hook that serves as a chorus, and little else by way of lyrical content. Some songs may have verse lyrics, and nothing other than syllabic sounds as a chorus hook.

For example, the most memorable sections of Kylie Minogue’s ‘Can’t Get You Outta My Head’, and Crystal Waters’ ‘Gypsy Woman (She’s Homeless)’ are the hooks ‘la la la’ and ‘la da dee, la doo dow’.

In one of my own songs, ‘Waiting’, I chose to insert the title motif in each verse instead of using it in the Chorus:

“I feel like a mannequin
All dressed up in my underwear
WAITING for you, aching for you
Breaking for you, and you’re never there.”
’Waiting’ – Queen Tantrum

Chorus Examples

The chorus in ‘Poker Face’ by Lady Gaga repeats the same lines twice, with no change to the melody. The song title is mentioned twice.

“Can’t read my, can’t read my
No, he can’t read my POKER FACE
She’s got to love nobody
“Can’t read my, can’t read my
No, he can’t read my POKER FACE
She’s got to love nobody…”
’Poker Face’ – Lady Gaga

The chorus in ‘Help’ by the Beatles repeats the song title at the beginning of the first and third line, and again at the end of Line 4. Lines 1, 2 & 3 rhyme and the motif in Line 4 ties the lyrical content of the Chorus up.

“HELP me if you can, I’m feeling down
And I do appreciate you being round
HELP me get my feet back on the ground
Won’t you please, please HELP me?”
’Help’ – The Beatles

The chorus in ‘American Pie’ by Don McLean repeats the song title once, but each line rhymes.

“Bye, bye, Miss AMERICAN PIE
Drove my Chevy to the levee, but the levee was dry
And them good old boys were drinkin’ whiskey and rye
Singing: This’ll be the day that I die. This’ll be the day that I die…”
’American Pie’ – Don McLean

Writing Lyrics

· The trick to writing great lyrics is to write what you know AND what the listener can relate to. It is also wise to carefully choose the words used.
· Lyrics (the words) can take a linear direction through the composition from beginning to end, or they can focus on a central thought
· Lyrics can be written poetically or in a conversational style. Grammatical rules of language need not apply when writing to music, especially when the importance of rhyme takes priority over grammatical correctness

So far, we have focused on the structural side of writing popular music. We will pay attention to choosing chords and melodies for our songs in Part 2.

Copyright © Emma L. M. Sweeney 2010. All Rights Reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder, except as follows: You may repost this article on your website or blog, providing the articles and author are not depicted in a negative manner, and you have linked back to this original page. Originally posted on my WordPress blogs and

Lady Gaga – ‘Poker Face’ lyrics are the property and copyright of their owners.
Lady Gaga – ‘Poker Face’ lyrics provided for educational purposes only.
The Beatles – ‘Help’ lyrics are the property and copyright of their owners.
The Beatles – ‘Help’ lyrics provided for educational purposes only.
Don McLean – ‘American Pie’ lyrics are the property and copyright of their owners.
Don McLean – ‘American Pie’ lyrics provided for educational purposes only.

Write Hit Songs

Vocal Training: Melisma

Melisma, in music, is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, where each syllable of text is matched to a single note. (Wiki)

Whitney Houston will be remembered as a master of “melisma”. But what is it and why did it influence a generation of singers and talent show aspirants?

The vocal technique traces its roots back to Gregorian chants and the ragas of Indian classical music.

In the modern era singers such as Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles and Sam Cooke are credited with bringing melisma from the choirs of churches to mainstream audiences.

Mariah Carey’s Vision of Love was a notable use. But it was Houston who popularised it and stretched the standards by attaching complicated strings of notes to single syllables.

But the term “melisma” is still relatively obscure within the pop music industry, with the effect often described simply as “ad libbing” or “riffing”.

Read full article here at the BBC.



Copyright © Emma L. M. Sweeney 2012. All Rights Reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder, except as follows: You may repost this article on your website or blog, providing the articles and author are not depicted in a negative manner, and you have linked back to this original page.

How To Make A Living In Music

I’ve just found a great YouTube channel! Watch ‘The Big Question: How To Make A Living In Music’ and Subscribe to the channel.



Published on 26 Dec 2016

This is a response to a question from one of my viewers. This doesn’t have an easy answer without talking about how money is made from Publishing, Record Sales, Sound Exchange, BMI or ASCAP, Publishing, Live Performance, Crowdfunding, Youtube, Teaching, Film Scoring and Licensing. I tried to address all or most of these things with actual numbers and how it all works.

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Public Speaking Success

How are your public speaking skills?


Some people seem able to effortlessly deliver compelling presentations to an audience. Perhaps they are completely at ease talking to a crowd, but the best speeches involve preparation and practice.


If your career or training course involves you having to present convincing content, it is in your best interests to practice, practice, practice. Whether your weak spots are choosing relevant content, or tackling crippling anxiety, the more you do something, the easier it becomes.



Nerves are not the end of the world. It’s good to be a little nervous and, providing you do not have crippling anxiety, the elevated adrenalin will help you perform better. Most people get nervous speaking in public and your audience understands that. It’s okay to acknowledge your nervousness. Also, take comfort in the fact they assume that simply by being the speaker, you have authority on your subject. They are not there to catch you out, they are there to learn and gain from the experience, so take comfort in that.


Speak from the heart, rather than from a sheet of paper or teleprompter. Written speeches lack a certain spark. If you are fearful of forgetting what you want to say, or are easily distracted, brief notes are fine, but don’t recite verbatim. You need to be able to make eye contact with your audience in order to maintain their interest.


You may wish to use PowerPoint slides; everyone likes something interesting to look at. They will help keep you on track, but limit them to 10 – 15 slides per presentation. You don’t want your audience to be more interested in what’s on the screen than what you are saying.


Slow down. Nerves have a tendency to make us rush our words, then we notice we’re not breathing properly. Oh my goodness, sweaty palms! And thinking about these things hampers us thinking about our topic. What was I saying? Everyone is looking at me! Then it’s all over.


Do some breathing exercises at home or with your voice coach in advance of your presentation. If you feel your throat drying up, take a pause, have some water, refocus. Your coach will help you learn where to leave spaces in your speech. If you constantly talk, your audience has no room to process the information. Leave gaps for the data to sink in.



Practice your speech with your coach, in front of a mirror, or record yourself on your smartphone. Do you move about too much? What other body language is distracting? Nerves can make us sway or wave our hands too much for emphasis, so work on other ways to relax or you will lose the listeners. Do you have any annoying tics or click your tongue, or say ‘Um’ while thinking. The ‘um’ comes from not preparing the thought before it comes out of your mouth. So pause, think, and then speak


Do you mumble? You might think your speaking voice is fine until you see yourself on camera. Learn to project your voice without shouting. If your audience can’t hear you properly, either in terms of volume or because you are rushing your words, they will grow fractious, and seeing them move about and mutter will further distract you.


Learn some power postures. One of my favourites is Superman Pose. It really works! Do it before you go out to your audience, or they might think you a trifle odd. Spend two minutes in your favourite power posture, and it will make a huge difference to your state of mind.


It was noted in an article on that two minutes in a power pose—arms and legs stretched out—spikes a person’s testosterone and dropped their cortisol. (Wired)


When out of the home, this is my preferred Superman Pose, as illustrated in the Grey’s Anatomy video below. Hands on hips, feet apart, chest forward, chin raised. It’s easy to do and does make me feel like the Marvel superhero I was born to be.



If you practice yoga, you might wish to engage in this alternative version, but it is probably inappropriate for most presentation environments!


When you do it, give yourself some words of encouragement. One of my favourites is ‘Good things are always happening to me’ (Esther Hicks/Abraham). Another is ‘I am a Champion!‘ Find somewhere private to prepare, and psyche yourself up for victory.



There is nothing worse than being nervous already and then, as you take the stage, having to wait around while someone fiddles with the equipment. If you arrive early, you can check there are no technical problems, and relax and focus on preparing your speech.


Will you be using a microphone? If so, please hold it properly! Sometimes, speakers can forget about mic placement through the talk and hold it further and further away from their mouths, until it is rendered useless. Learn the best position for your microphone and do not cover the metal grille with your hand as you will limit its capacity to pick up sound and increase risk of feedback


Perhaps you will be using a lapel mic, in which case, make sure you have new batteries and test it out for feedback before the presentation. Also, wear appropriate clothing and ensure you have no jewellery banging against it while you deliver your talk.



The foundation for a great experience is rapport. When you begin, pull your audience into the experience, rather than reciting a long list of facts at them. The more involved they feel, the more actively they will listen and you will have a mutual exchange of energy which will help you relax.


You don’t have to ask anything that requires direct answers from them, as they may not yet feel confident replying, but giving a few rhetorical questions at the beginning of your talk will get them thinking. Introduce your topic, explain why you feel so passionately about it and why they should, too. They don’t want to hear a list of your achievements, they want to be drawn into a collective experience.



This may feel uncomfortable at first, but with practice you will get used to it. If you have someone or several attendees there that you know, even better. Pick several kind-looking people in the audience and speak directly to them. Make sure they’re spaced out, and don’t forget to speak to the back of the room. If this is very difficult for you, pick some imaginary ones! It is fine to look down at your notes as long as you make sure to look at the audience regularly. And smile! (Unless it is inappropriate to do so.)



Follow this formula to create a satisfying experience for the audience. After your introduction and overview of the topic, present your listeners with a problem. Through the middle section of your talk, give them the reaction, what transpired as a result of the problem. And then, offer them a solution.


Let’s examine the sections of your talk.



Consider what your audience already know about the subject and reinforce this without stating the obvious or losing them in technical jargon. Boredom is your enemy and you only want to make friends. Perhaps you may want to include anecdotes or a tell an engaging tale. Humans love stories. Leave the PowerPoint slides for now; you can introduce them later.


Personalise your lecture. Most topics have been talked about already, but there is only one You. By taking your listeners on your personal journey, you can give them a unique experience. Make sure this journey follows one direction. No matter how much great material you have, if you aimlessly dart from point to point, you won’t get your message across adequately and your audience will leave unsatisfied.



Next come the finer details. This is where you can include data, but don’t overload your listeners with too much information. You cannot sum up a lifetime of knowledge in one speech. Stick to the specifics, you can always schedule further lectures on related topics. This is the section of your presentation that may benefit from your slides or a short video.



Finally, tie up the components of your presentation with a satisfying closing section. Remind the audience of the main points of your lecture, reinforce the message you transmitted to your audience, i.e. the Why of your shared journey, and then resolve the talk with a target thought for them to ponder long after they leave.


Excellent preparation will make for excellent delivery, and who knows, you might enjoy it. I wish you many great speaking engagements in the year ahead and beyond.




Copyright Emma L. M. Sweeney © 2016. All Rights Reserved. No portion of this article may be reproduced without the express written permission of the copyright holder, except as follows: You may repost this article on your website or blog, providing the articles and author are not depicted in a negative manner, and you have linked back to this original page.

Tribute Singers and Soundalikes

Great tribute singers are like method actors. They study their chosen artist and perfect their own performance. It’s not difficult to imitate other singers as long as you ground your performance in good technique.


As singers, we should always find our own style, but there may be times when you want to sound like someone else. When session singing, studios can have particular vocal styles and tones in mind, and if you can change your voice at will, it means for more work from the studio.


You might want to work a season in production shows at hotel resorts or on cruise liners, and when there are a plethora of singers performing the same tribute act as the one you are creating, you have to make sure you stand out.


As usual, I must stress the importance of being guided by an experienced vocal coach if you want a sustainable career in singing. Before you try to become a soundalike of another singer, you need to develop excellent technique. This is the foundation for vocal health, which is paramount to be a durable performer with many years left in your voice. It is also how you find your signature sound, which is essential if you want to be a memorable performer.



In order to pull off a great impression of a well-known singer, you need to listen first. Start with their big hits and listen to them many times. Break each session down into the following areas of study:



If you’re planning on spending a whole season singing an artist’s repertoire that is out of your range, forget it. Unless you transpose the music into a comfortable key, it is inadvisable to sing out of your range for more than a few gigs. If you are using backing tracks most websites offer the option to order your track in any key (if you change the pitch too far, it will distort the quality and tone of the track, so choose wisely). You will spend less time perfecting your performance if you choose an artist who has a similar voice to you



If you have any sound production experience and know your way round a mixing desk, you will be familiar with the equalizer. The EQ section allows you to add and cut certain frequencies in the sound passing through the channel, changing the tone of the signal.


Some singers have bright-sounding voices, others have warmer, lower frequencies prominent in their voices. You can learn to modify these frequencies in your own voice without touching the desk at all, but choosing the right microphone and speaking to your sound engineer, or learning how to modify the EQ section will help greatly.



What accent does your chosen artist sing with? Most contemporary Western singers employ an Americanized sound, but there are some who sing with a more English-sounding voice. One feature of their sound is their vowels are narrower. Adele and David Bowie are very English sounding singers, as is Sting. Practice singing different vowel sounds with your voice coach



Does your chosen singer hit the beat when he or she sings the lyrics to a song or do they have a lazier placement? Do they attack the notes from a closed cord position, or employ slides and fry into the beginning of a lyric? Do they use unusual phrasing? How and when do they breathe?


Tori Amos and Alanis Morissette use interesting phrasing styles. Have a listen to them singing and you will notice how they divide their lyrics in non-typical ways. Tori tends to use less definite attack in her melodies, while Alanis’ attack is more immediate.



How loud does your artist sing? Are they a ballsy diva, or do they have a more intimate, delicate quality to their voice? Do they modify their dynamics during a song, with quieter verses and louder refrains, or do they stick to the same volume throughout?



Does your chosen artist use a lot of vibrato or sing with a straight sound? Sade sings with very little, if any, vibrato. Excessive vibrato can be irritating to listen to, and messes with your pitch control, but vibrato is something to pay attention to. It can take work to be able to switch between vibrato and non-vibrato singing, especially when you have your own natural rate of vibrato, but it is manageable. Your voice coach will give you exercises to practice.



What makes the singer’s voice distinctive? What is the main standout feature of his or her voice?


Elvis had a notable slur to his singing. Amy Winehouse used wide phonation and a jazzy style. Christina Aguilera employs a lot of melisma during her performances. Steven Tyler from Aerosmith uses lots of blues licks, ascends to falsetto, and has a raspy quality to his voice. He also changes phonation during words and phrases, as does Tori Amos. Maroon 5’s Adam Levine stays connected and attacks the notes without sliding.


Listen and define what your chosen singer does most and then practice it. Over-use it until you get it down pat, and then tone it down a little.



The key to pulling a great impression off is not just the voice, but the body language. Find the prominent features and movements of the celebrity singer you are imitating and emphasise them. Do they move around a lot when they sing, or stay relatively still? How do they hold their microphone? Do they use a mic stand? Do they play with it, or use other props during their performances? Do they sit during certain songs? Watch live videos of their shows and see how they interact with the crowd. Perhaps you may want to interact more, and that’s okay



Educating yourself in the different aspects of what makes your chosen singer’s performance can help you do a great job imitating them.


Last of all, convey emotion. This is how you best sell a performance; the audience want and need to be pulled into your experience.




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