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Sing with us in Wavertree

I’m in the process of setting up a community singing group!


If you are interested in learning how to sing, and want to make new friends in Wavertree, I’m forming a small singing group/choir, to rehearse once a week.
You don’t need to have musical experience, just a willingness to join in and give it your best, because I will teach you the rest!
For more info, bookmark this page and revisit in a week or two. Also, you can email me and I’ll send out info when details are finalised.
Vocal Exercises Backing Track

Greetings, singers!

I’ve uploaded a piano backing track for you to sing along to while warming up your voice each morning or before a performance. You can bookmark the YouTube video below, or go to the ‘Free Stuff‘ tab at the top of the page and download the mp3 to your device so you can use it offline too.

Happy Singing!


how to mic a cello
How To Mic A Cello

From time to time, I’m going to share links to articles I’m reading that you might find useful in your musical pursuits.

This one is about how to mic a cello. I’ve never recorded mine, but I was thinking about doing so tonight as I listened to Whitesnake’s ‘Still Of The Night’. I’d love to cover that track, but with real stringed instruments instead of synths.

How to Mic a Cello for Live and Recording

The cello is pure distilled elegance. Its tone is among the most gorgeous and evocative of any instrument. It has the lyrical expression and agility of the violin, in a baritone playing range. Trombone, bassoon, vocalist- nothing would sound so beautiful performing the cello’s definitive melody. The violoncello, as it is properly known, is noteworthy for its emotional range. It can just as easily settle into a classical piece as popsoul, or even hardcore skate punk. While it is often used in emotionally touching settings, it can just as easily be played in a tense, gritty manner; check out the soundtrack from the 1966 version of Farenheit 451 or the arrangement in Eleanor Rigby.

If you are tasked with miking a cello player, you face a heavy task. There is a lot of potential to fulfill. That said, cellos (and other bowed string instruments) are not extremely fussy. They respond well to fairly simple mic technique. The biggest open question is of taste. What sound are you aiming for, and how do you bring that out most effectively. Whether you are at home, in a recording studio, or in a live setting, you can help bring the beauty of cello playing to life…

Read the rest of the article here.

And enjoy David Coverdale’s awesome vocal at the YouTube link below.

Note Values

Here are the most common note values you will encounter.



A semibreve (whole note) lasts for four counts.



A minim (half note) lasts for two counts.

  • Two minims occupy the same duration as a semibreve




A crotchet (quarter note) lasts for one count.

  • Two crotchets occupy the same duration as a minim

  • Four crotchets occupy the same duration as a semibreve




A quaver (eighth note) lasts for half a count.

  • Two quavers occupy the same duration as a crotchet

  • Four quavers occupy the same duration as a minim

  • Eight quavers occupy the same duration as a semibreve




A semiquaver (sixteenth note) lasts for a quarter of a count.

  • Two semiquavers occupy the same duration as a quaver

  • Four semiquavers occupy the same duration as a crotchet

  • Eight semiquavers occupy the same duration as a minim

  • Sixteen semiquavers occupy the same duration as a semibreve


Notes smaller than one count, or beat, have tails, e.g. the quaver has a single tail and the semiquaver has two.

We also have demisemiquavers, hemidemisemiquavers, semihemidemisemiquavers and demisemihemidemisemiquavers – with three, four, five and six tails respectively – but we will ignore them for now.

The chart below will help you to remember note durations.

The Stave

If you have seen sheet music before, you will know musical notes are written on a series of lines and spaces. These lines and spaces are called a stave (staff)*. The modern stave has five lines and four spaces. Each represents a note on the white keys of a piano keyboard.




* Throughout this course I will include the US names alongside the European terminology where necessary, as different examining boards follow different protocol.



A clef is a symbol that indicates the pitch and name of notes written on the stave. Clef is French for key. We use three main clefs in contemporary (modern) music, but there are several more.


The three we most often use are:


Treble Clef


Bass Clef
bass clef


Alto Clef
alto clef


We also have a neutral clef for percussion; it is not a clef, per se, but a standard convention indicating the musical notes that follow it are to be played by an instrument of no fixed pitch.


neutral clef


Guitarists may be familiar with TAB. Tab, or tablature, appears similar to a regular stave but has an extra line. Instead of reflecting note names, the lines on a TAB stave represent guitar strings. The note heads are replaced by numbers, representing the fret to be pressed (more on TAB in a later lesson).


guitar tab


The Grand Stave (Grand Staff)

The Grand Stave is used for keyboard instruments, with a stave for the left hand below and a separate one above for the right hand. Theoretically, the Grand Stave is a single, eleven-lined stave, but that would be far too difficult to read. Instead, we eliminate the middle line and are left with two five-line staves.


grand stave


The higher stave, or treble stave, is for notes higher in pitch than those on the lower stave. We play these with the right hand. Notes here are prefaced with a treble clef, also known as the G clef. The line which the body of the treble clef curls around is a G.


The lower stave, or bass stave, is for notes lower in pitch than those on the higher stave. We play these with the left hand. Notes on the left hand stave are prefaced with a bass clef, also known as the F clef. The line between the two dots of the clef is an F.



The Musical Alphabet

Notes are labelled like the modern English alphabet, but the musical alphabet is very simple as it only has seven letters. It runs from A to G and then starts over, as shown in the keyboard and stave diagrams below.


Eventually, we run out of space to place high and low notes. We can fix this by adding leger (ledger) lines to notes pitched higher and lower than the stave.


leger lines

Music Theory – Why Bother?

Introduction to Music Theory

Music has always been around, long before music theory. So why bother learning it?

music theoryMusic theory is the rules and conventions of musical language, much like those of any spoken language, like Spanish or German. Just as many people in the world are able to communicate without reading or writing, numerous self-taught musicians learn to play instruments without knowing music theory. However, becoming fluent in language and comprehension improves your ability to communicate thoughts and feelings.

Knowing music theory is similar. It will help you develop and master your musical skills, try new styles and instruments, and become confident in your abilities. As you work through this course, you might find that you actually know more music theory than you realised; you just didn’t have the words to describe what you know and feel.

It would be lovely to be able to pick up any instrument and just play without any prior learning, but most people can’t do that. We need some basic information first about how to understand the language of music (plus how to translate this knowledge to playing our chosen instrument). When we put these elements together, we accumulate a wide range of knowledge enabling us to become better players, readers, and singers.

Analysing music and its forms enabled composers to transcribe what they created long before we had the facilities to record audio. By writing notes on sheets, with additional directions, they knew musicians could reproduce the compositions as they were meant to be played.

If we want to play Classical music it is essential we can read notated music. While not essential for studio session musicians, the ability to sightread sheet music gives us a huge advantage in certain genres over musicians who play by ear. The musically fluent player is able to quickly scan a piece of sheet music and hear it in his head. The best session musicians who play by ear still understand key centres and how to move between tonalities, which is especially important when improvising over a chord sequence, e.g. playing a metal guitar solo or blues saxophone interlude.

Songwriters and composers need to know music theory. Music producers, too, can greatly benefit a fundamental understanding of musical language when working with artists in the studio. Knowing how music is put together will enable you to become a better producer.

All popular music follows certain patterns and forms, and the songwriter who understands how to analyse what makes a song a hit can emulate and develop his own strong material. Catchy vocal melodies are based on scales and arpeggios, and other repetitive riffs that belong in the key of the song. If a songwriter understands how chords are built and which chords work with one another, it makes the job of creating a new song much easier and more enjoyable, especially when writing to a brief and to a deadline.

Becoming a great musician takes discipline and hard work, but it is worth it and it is also a lot of fun. As with all pursuits, our results as musicians are rooted in our efforts. When we understand the basic elements of music theory, such as counting beats, rhythm and a steady pace, harmony, key signatures, time signatures, time values of written note and rest types, we become better musicians.

In this course, we will start with the basics and build upon this foundation to take your understanding of music to a higher level. Even if you have some musical experience but never learned to read music, developing this additional knowledge will add extra skills to your toolbox.

So, let’s begin! If you would like to join my music theory course, please send me a message on the Contact page for more information.

Emma L.M. Sweeney